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HawksCode Softwares Pvt. Ltd Course Number: ES 234
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Database management systems (DBMSs) are computer software applications that interact with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases. Well-known DBMSs include MySQL, PostgreSQL,Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, SAP and IBM DB2. A database is not generally portable across different DBMSs, but different DBMSs can interoperate by using standards such as SQL and ODBC or JDBC to allow a single application to work with more than one DBMS. Database management systems are often classified according to the database model that they support; the most popular database systems since the 1980s have all supported the relational model as represented by the SQL language.Existing DBMSs provide various functions that allow management of a database and its data which can be classified into four main functional groups:

Data definition – Creatio, modificatio and removal of definitions that define the organization of the data.

Update – Insertion, modification, and deletion of the actual data.

Retrieval – Providing information in a form directly usable or for further processing by other applications. The retrieved data may be made available in a form basically the same as it is stored in the database or in a new form obtained by altering or combining existing data from the database.

Administration – Registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, and recovering information that has been corrupted by some event such as an unexpected system failure.

                  

A database model is a type of data model that determines the logical structure of a database and fundamentally determines in which manner data can be stored, organized, and manipulated. The most popular example of a database model is the relational model (or the SQL approximation of relational), which uses a table-based format.

Common logical data models for databases include:

Hierarchical database model

Network model

Relational model

Entity–relationship model

Enhanced entity–relationship model

Object model

Document model

Entity–attribute–value model

Star schema

An object-relational database combines the two related structures.

Physical data models include:

Inverted index

Flat file

Other models include:

Associative model

Multidimensional model

Array model

Multivalue model

Semantic model

XML database