In pursuit of its mandate, the DAE has established research and development centres as well as grant-in-aid institutions, and has taken in its fold several existing institutions as its grant-in-aid institutions. Together all institutions under the umbrella of the DAE present a formidable group in terms of expertise in science and engineering and research infrastructure. All research institutions under the umbrella of the DAE had been pursuing academic programmes with affiliation from universities located nearby. These programmes were either research based degree programmes (Ph.D. and M.Sc. by research) or class room based course work programmes in certain specialized areas [Diploma in Radiological Physics (DipRP), and Diploma in Medical Radio Isotope Techniques (DMRIT)] or those having a combination of class room courses and research (M.D., M.Ch. and D.M.). Student intake for these programmes was less than the full potential of the institutions and intensity of academic exchanges between R&D centres and grant-in-aid institutions had scope for improvement.